Possessory Lien under Libyan Civil law

judge signing on the papers

A possessory lien under Libyan law is created by contractual agreement. It permits a creditor the right to remain in possession of an encumbered thing, movable or immovable, until the debtor has satisfied the debt. Therefore, a lien is a legal claim that one person, the creditor or the pledgee, has over the property of another, the debtor or pledgor, as security for paying a debt.

possessory lien under Libyan law image

Under Libyan law, possessory lien grants the pledgee the right to (i) possess the pledge until the terms of the possessory lien are met, and (ii) the right to seek a court’s decision to sell the pledge if its value deteriorates to a point where the value of the pledgee becomes, or fear to become, less than the debt.

On the other hand, the pledgor (i) is under obligation to guarantee the safety of the pledge, and (ii) shall be responsible for the deterioration of value or loss of pledge due to his/her negligence or force majeure (Articles 1105 and 1106 of the Libyan Civil Code).

Article (1101) of the Libyan Civil Code

As stipulated by Article (1101) of the Libyan Civil Code, the thing subject of a possessory lien must either be movable or immovable, which can be sold independently in a public auction. It should also be well defined and subject to possession. Therefore, the subject of a possessory lien could be real estate or a car that falls under the definition of the thing subject to be pledged.

The property, the pledge, could be kept, in possession of, the pledgee, until the debt has been paid, or it could remain in possession of the pledgor. In some cases, the pledgor remains in possession of the pledge but will not own it.

In case the pledged item was in the position of the pledgor, and after the debt was satisfied and the pledged item was returned to the pledgee, the pledgee has the right to claim any such entitlement against the pledgor for damages for the pledged item.

The pledgor is responsible for the safety of the thing pledged. Consequently, the pledgor is accountable for any damage to the pledged item. Article 1106 (1) of the Libyan Civil Code holds the pledgor responsible for damages to the pledged item if the damage is due to his negligence or due to forcemajeureeven if the pledged item is in possession of the pledgee.

Article 1107 of the Libyan Civil Code rest the duty of maintenance of the pledged thing on the pledgee. The pledgee becomes responsible for the safety of the pledge if he has possession of the pledge. He will use the care of a reasonable person and shall be liable for deterioration or loss of the pledged item unless he proves the cause of damage is not attributed to him.

The management of the thing pledged shall be the responsibility of the pledgee, who shall manage the thing pledged item as a reasonable person would under the circumstances. The pledgee shall not change how the pledged item is used unless approved by the pledgor.

If the pledgee miss manages the pledged thing or misuses it, the pledgor shall have the right to ask for the pledged item to be placed under judicial deposit.

The pledgor will also have the right to ask the court for the restitution of the pledged thing, provided he will be the debt.

Unless the pledge contract states otherwise, the thing pledged must be invested as stipulated in Article 1108. The pledgor is not allowed to benefit from the investment, in the form of revenue or production, of the pledged thing. On the other hand, the investment of the pledge is considered an obligation on the pledgee if he is in possession of the thing pledged.

Net Profits Details

The net profits received by the pledgor from managing the pledged item shall cover (i) the pledgee’s expenses on the preservation and maintenance, expenses of the pledged item, (ii) the interest and, (iii) the rest of the amount of the net profit, if there is any, shall be deducted from the capital amount of the debt.

Dr Mohamed Karbal is licensed to practice law in Libya, New York and Washington D.C. He served as an expert witness on Libyan law. Karbal & Co is a full-service international law firm that serves the needs of businesses and governments in Libya and Washington D.C.

Disclaimer:

Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication at the time it was written. It is not intended to provide legal advice or suggest a guaranteed outcome as individual situations will differ and the law may have changed since publication. Readers considering legal action should consult with an experienced lawyer to understand current laws and how they may affect a case.

For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

The elements of investing the pledged money in the Libyan civil law:

The Libyan law has placed upon the pledgee in the official mortgage the right to dispose of any of its forms, whether by sale, or investment, but this behaviour is not to be released in the possession pledge, since the pledged money is transferred to the pledgee and this condition

Second: The elements of investing in the possession mortgage contract:

The investment of the pledge is considered an obligation of the pledgee in the Libyan Civil code provided that there is no agreement not to invest
The pledged money is between the pledgee and the pledgor, and this obligation is only in the event that the pledged money is transferred to the possession of the pledgor, and this right does not

It is for the pledgee in the event of a possession mortgage (90).
It follows from this obligation that it be in return, as the pledgor does not have the right to benefit from the pledged money in the possession pledge without return.
At that point, the mortgagee has the right to use the mortgaged property for himself, such as living in the mortgaged house or riding in the mortgaged car, and he also has the right to

He exploits it by someone else and rents it out to someone else (91).
What the mortgagee obtains from the net profit, and what he also obtains from his investment of the pledged money is not returned to the pledgee.

He must first deduct from the net profits the value of what he spent on the custodian on the mortgaged thing, and in repairing it when it was damaged,
Then he deducts, secondly.

All the expenses he incurred on managing the mortgaged money and then deduct thirdly the interests obtained from the origin of the mortgage.

Then, fourthly, what remains of the net profit, after all, that is deducted from the principal debt secured by the mortgage. This aforementioned deduction is considered one of the
The pledgor has the right, and the pledgee has no right to interfere in it, so he has the pledgee to follow what is appropriate towards this opponent (92).

the obligation of a person by virtue of a contract as security for a debt due to him, or to another, to deliver To the creditor, or to a foreigner appointed by the two contracting parties, something that gives the creditor a right in rem that entitles him to withhold the thing until the debt is paid.

So that he is ahead of the ordinary creditors and those who follow him in the salary in fulfilling his right from the price of this thing in whichever hand it is (8).
Where the possessory mortgage contract is considered a consensual mortgage like a formal mortgage, which is established by virtue of a mutual consensual contract between the mortgagee creditor and the debtor.

The present contract, and each of them has obligations, and this consensual contract is concluded by mere exchange of offer and acceptance between the contracting parties.

The pledge could be a real estate mortgage, movable mortgage, and debt mortgage. Article (1101) stipulates, saying: “It is not subject to the possessory mortgage unless it
can be sold independently in public auction of movables and real estate”

Possession Mortgage Contract

In application of this text, it is required in the possession mortgage contract that the following conditions be fulfilled (28):

The first condition: The mortgaged money must be from real estate and movables that can be sold by public auction.

The second condition: that these real estates and movables should be of what is valid to deal with.

The third condition: that it be precisely specific, and that it is subject to possession, and there is no difference between being movable things.

The elements of investing the pledged money in the Libyan civil law:

The Libyan law has placed upon the pledgee in the official mortgage the right to dispose of any of its forms, whether by sale, or
investment, but this behaviour is not to be released in the possession pledge, since the pledged money is transferred to the pledgee and this condition

Second: The elements of investing in the possession mortgage contract:
The investment of the pledged money is considered an obligation of the pledgee in Libyan law, provided that there is no agreement not to invest
The pledged money is between the pledgee and the pledgor, and this obligation is only in the event that the pledged money is transferred to the possession of the pledgor, and this right does not

It is for the pledgee in the event of a possession mortgage (90).
It follows from this obligation that it be in return, as the pledgor does not have the right to benefit from the pledged money in the possession pledge without return.
At that point, the mortgagee has the right to use the mortgaged property for himself, such as living in the mortgaged house, or riding in the mortgaged car, and he also has the right to
He exploits it by someone else and rents it out to someone else (91).
What the mortgagee obtains from the net profit, and what he also obtains from his investment of the pledged money is not returned to the pledgee, but must

He must first deduct from the net profits the value of what he spent on the custodian on the mortgaged thing, and in repairing it when it was damaged,
Then he deducts, secondly, all the expenses he incurred on managing the mortgaged money, and then deducts thirdly the interests obtained from the origin of the mortgage.
Then, fourthly, what remains of the net profit after all that is deducted from the principal debt secured by the mortgage.

This aforementioned deduction is considered one of the
The pledgor has the right, and the pledgee has no right to interfere in it, so he has the pledgee to follow what is appropriate towards this opponent (92).

Conditions of the pledged money in the possession mortgage contract:
The possession mortgage contract varies into real estate mortgage, movable mortgage, and debt mortgage.
Likewise, he responds to the debt, according to what Article (1101) stipulates, saying: “It is not subject to the possessory mortgage.”
Except what can be sold independently by public auction of movables and real estate” (27).

In application of this text, it is required in the possession mortgage contract that the following conditions be fulfilled (28):
The first condition: The mortgaged money must be from real estate and movables that can be sold by public auction.
The second condition: that these real estates and movables should be of what is valid to deal with.
The third condition: that it be precisely specific, and that it is subject to possession, and there is no difference between being movable things.
Material, such as: furniture, cars, livestock, and ornaments, or be intangible, such as: copyright, patent, antique money,
Or be a debt: such as: nominal bonds.

The nature of delivery, or seizure of the pledged money in the Libyan Civil Code:
The nature of the custody of the pledged money differs according to the type of pledge in the law, either it is an official pledge, or it is a pledge
possessively, as follows:

First: The nature of arrest in the official mortgage contract:
The money pledged in the official mortgage contract in Libyan law remains in the possession of the current debtor and is not transferred to the mortgagee, and it is not necessary

In this case, the pledged money – the real estate – is transferred to the creditor, but remains under the possession of the debtor, and Article 1047 stipulates:
A Libyan civilian asserted this right by saying: “It is permissible for the pledgee to dispose of the mortgaged property, and any act issued by him does not affect the right of the mortgaged property.”

The creditor and the mortgagee” (55).
This indicates that the pledgee retains the right to dispose of the mortgaged property as it was before the mortgage.

The powers of the owner from disposal, use and exploitation, provided that it does not harm the right of the mortgagee and does not affect it.
In this case, the right of his mortgage of the mortgaged property is restricted in the real estate registry, and it becomes the right of the mortgagee creditor to fulfill his right and track the property.

In which hand did he move after the mortgage was entered into? (56).

Second: The nature of arrest in the possession mortgage contract:
The right of the obligation to deliver the pledged thing from the pledgee is considered to be the one who transfers possession of the thing to the pledgee, or to another person
The two parties shall designate him for an absolute physical delivery, whether the pledged money is real estate or movable, and the delivery entrusted to him in the sale is not sufficient.

Just; Rather, in it, possession must pass from the hand of the pledgee and not return to him except after the termination of the mortgage (57).
Possession in the mortgaged money is one of the most important features that distinguish the possessory mortgage from other types, so it must be transferred from the hand of the mortgaged property.

The mortgaged property is in the hands of the pledgee, or justice, even if the thing mortgaged is a debt; The mortgagee creditor has the right to possess the mortgaged debt bond on the condition That the debt is transferable, attached, or mortgageable (58).

Likewise, possession is required to be clear, unambiguous, and unambiguous so that others are fully aware that this

The thing in the possession of the mortgagee on the basis that it is mortgaged, and it is also required that it be continuous as long as the mortgage contract continues.
The possessor, and it is not effective in the right of others other than this possession, as if it goes out from the hands of the pledgee to the hands of someone else without his will.

The law authorizes him to recover them from others, and to take precedence over ordinary creditors, as well as creditors next to him in salary (59).
The possession in the possession mortgage contract hardly differs in its quality from the official mortgage contract.

The real estate registry if the mortgaged property is real estate until possession passes to the creditor, or justice – and this matter is not different from a contract
The official mortgage can also be registered in the real estate registry – but if the mortgaged place is movable in the possession mortgage, it must

Proving it in an official paper showing the values of the amount secured by the mortgage, and the mortgaged money, and it is stipulated in the papers that it has a fixed date;
Because this date will determine the salary of the mortgagee creditor (60).

The elements of investing the pledged money in the Libyan civil law:
The Libyan law has placed upon the pledgee in the official mortgage the right to dispose of any of its forms, whether by sale, or
investment, but this behavior is not to be released in the possession pledge, since the pledged money is transferred to the pledgee, and this condition
There is no official mortgage, and the statement is as follows:

First: The elements of investing in the official mortgage contract:
The debtor owed in the official mortgage contract in Libyan law has the right to reserve the right to dispose of the mortgaged money as it was before the mortgage contract
Evidence for the text of Article: (1047) asserts this right by saying: “The pledgee may dispose of the mortgaged property, and any disposal issued

It does not affect the right of the creditor and the mortgagee.” The pledgee remains entitled to all the powers of the owner from disposal, use, and investment provided
It does not harm the right of the mortgagee creditor and does not affect him, and this behavior is nothing but the transfer of his possession to the mortgaged money (88).

Consequently, the mortgagee creditor, in the event of an official mortgage, must restrict the right of his mortgage to the mortgaged money from the pledgee’s right to dispose of it in

The pledged money is officially mortgaged by selling it in separate parts to a number of buyers, so the mortgagee creditor has the right to track each part.
Of the mortgaged money, that is, the property is in the hands of the person who bought it, and the Libyan law confirms that the mortgagee has the right to follow the property even if it is moved to

any other person in any particular way (89).
Second: The elements of investing in the possession mortgage contract:
The investment of the pledged money is considered an obligation of the pledgee in Libyan law, provided that there is no agreement not to invest

The pledged money is between the pledgee and the pledgor, and this obligation is only in the event that the pledged money is transferred to the possession of the pledgor, and this right does not

It is for the pledgee in the event of a possession mortgage (90).
It follows from this obligation that it be in return, as the pledgor does not have the right to benefit from the pledged money in the possession pledge without return.

At that point, the mortgagee has the right to use the mortgaged property for himself, such as living in the mortgaged house or riding in the mortgaged car, and he also has the right to

He exploits it by someone else and rents it out to someone else (91).
What the mortgagee obtains from the net profit, and what he also obtains from his investment of the pledged money is not returned to the pledgee, but must

He must first deduct from the net profits the value of what he spent on the custodian on the mortgaged thing, and in repairing it when it was damaged,

Then he deducts, secondly, all the expenses he incurred on managing the mortgaged money, and then deducts thirdly the interests obtained from the origin of the mortgage.
Then, fourthly, what remains of the net profit, after all, that is deducted from the principal debt secured by the mortgage.

This aforementioned deduction is considered one of the
The pledgor has the right, and the pledgee has no right to interfere in it, so he has the pledgee to follow what is appropriate towards this opponent (92). التزام شخص بمقتضى عقد ضماناً لدين علةيه، أو علةى غيره بأن يسلةم
إلى الدائن، أو إلى أجنبي يعينه المتعاقدان شيئاً يترتب علةيه للةدائن حقاً عينياً يخوله حبس الشيء لحين استيفاء الديْن،
بحيث يتقدم علةى الدائنين العاديين والتالين له في المرتب في اقتضاء حقه من ثمن هذا الشيء في أي يد يكون ) 8 .)
حيث يعتبر عقد الرهن الحيازي رهناً اتفاقياً كالرهن الرسمي ، ينشأ بمقتضى عقد رضائي تبادلي بين الدائن المرتهن والمدين
الراهن ، ويرتب علةى عاتق كل منهما التزامات ، وينعقد هذا العقد الرضائي بمجرد التبادل بالإيجاب والقبول بين المتعاقدين

شروط المال المرهون في عقد الرهن الحيازي:
يتنوع عقد الرهن الحيازي إلى رهن العقار، ورهن المنقول، ورهن الدّيْن، وبالتالي يرد الرهن الحيازي علةى العقار، والمنق ول،
وكذلك فهو يرد علةى الدَّيْن، وذلك علةى حسب ما نصت علةيه المادة: ) 1101 ( بقولها: ” لا يكون محلاً للةرهن الحيازي
إلاَ ما يمكن بيعه استقلالاً بالمزاد العلةني من منقول وعقار ” ) 27.)

وتطبيقاً لهذا النص، فإنه يقتضي في عقد الرهن الحيازي تحقق الشروط التالي ) 28:)
الشرط الأول: أن يكون المال المرهون من العقارات والمنقولات التي يصح بيعها بالمزاد العلةني.
الشرط الثاني: أن تكون هذه العقارات والمنقولات مما يصح التعامل بها.
الشرط الثالث: أن تكون معين بالذات تعيناً دقيقاً، وأن تكون قابلة للةحيازة، ولا فرق بين أن تكون الأشياء المنقول
مادي ، مثل: الأثاث، والسيارات، والمواشي، والحلةي، أو تكون معنوي ، مثل: حق المؤلف، وبراءة الاختراع، والنقود الأثري ،
أو تكون ديْناً: وذلك مثل: السندات الاسمي

طبيعة التسليم، أو القبض للمال المرهون في القانون المدني الليبي:
تختلةف طبيع القبض للةمال المرهون علةى حسب نوع الرهن في القانون إما أن يكون رهناً رسمياً، وإما أن يكون رهناً
حيازياً، وذلك علةى النحو التالي: .

مقومات الاستثمار في عقد الرهن الحيازي:
إن استثمار المال المرهون يعتبر التزاماً يقع علةى عاتق المرتهن في القانون اللةيبي بشرط إذا لم يكن هناك اتفاق بعدم استثمار
المال المرهون بين الراهن والمرتهن، وهذا الالتزام لا يكون إلاّ في حال انتقال المال المرهون إلى حيازة المرتهن، وهذا الحق لا
يكون للةراهن في حال الرهن الحيازي ) 90 .)
ويترتب علةى هذا الالتزام أن يكون بمقابل، فلةيس للةمرتهن أن ينتفع بالمال المرهون في الرهن الحيازي من غير مقابل ،
وحينئذٍ يحق للةمرتهن أن يستغل المرهون لحساب نفسه كأن يسكن المنزل المرهون، أو يركب السيارة المرهون ، وله أيضاً أن
يستغلةها بواسط غيره فيؤجرها لشخص آخر ) 91 .)
وما يتحصل علةيه المرتهن من صافي الربح، وما يتحصل علةيه أيضاً من استثماره للةمال المرهون لا يرده للةراهن؛ بل يجب
علةيه أن يخصم من صافي الأرباح أولاً قيم ما أنفقه في المحافظ علةى الشيء المرهون، وفي إصلاحه عند تعرضه للةضرر،
ثُم يخصم ثانياً كل المصروفات التي صرفها علةى إدارة المال المرهون، ثم يخصم ثالثاً الفوائد المتحصل علةيها من أصل الرهن،
ثم يخصم رابعاً ما بقي من صافي الربح بعد كل ذلك من أصل الديْن المضمون بالرهن، وهذا الخصم المتقدم يعتبر من
حق المرتهن، وليس للةراهن الحق في التدخل فيه، فلةلةمرتهن اتباع ما هو مناسب اتجاه هذا الخصم ) 92

أولاً: طبيعة القبض في عقد الرهن الرسمي:
يبقى المال المرهون في عقد الرهن الرسمي في القانون اللةيبي في حيازة المدين الراهن ولا ينتقل إلى المرتهن، وليس من الضروري
في هذه الحال أن ينتقل المال المرهون – العقار – إلى الدائن، وإنما يبقى تحت حيازة المدين، وقد نصت المادة: ) 1047 )
مدني ليبي علةى هذا الحق بقولها: ” يجوز للةراهن أن يتصرف في العقار المرهُون، وأي تصرف يصدر منه لا يؤثر في حق
الدائن والمرتهن ” ) 55.)
حيث يدل ذلك علةى أن الراهن يحتفظ بحق تصرفه في العقار المرهون كما كان قبل الرهن، فإن الراهن تظل له كل
سلةطات المالك من تصرف واستعمال واستغلال بشرط ألاَ يضر بحق الدائن المرتهن ولا يؤثر فيه، ويجب علةى المرتهن في
هذه الحال تقييد حق رهنه للةعقار المرهون في السجل العقاري، ويصبح من حق الدائن المرتهن استيفاء حقه وتتبع العقار
في أي يد انتقل إليها بعد قيد الرهن علةيه ) 56.)

ثانياً: طبيعة القبض في عقد الرهن الحيازي:
يعتبر حق الالتزام بتسلةيم الشيء المرهون من الراهن هو الذي ينقل حيازة الشيء إلى الدائن المرتهن، أو إلى شخص آخر
يعينه الطرفان تسلةيماً مادياً مطلةقاً سواء كان المال المرهون عقاراً، أو منقولاً، ولا يكفي فيه التسلةيم المعهود به في البيع
فقط؛ بل لابد فيه من أن تنتقل الحيازة من يد الراهن ولا تعود إليه إلاَ بعد انقضاء الرهن ) 57.)

والحيازة في المال المرهون تعتبر من أهم ما يميز الرهن الحيازي من غيره من الأنواع الأخرى ، فيجب أن تنتقل من يد
الراهن إلى يد المرتهن، أو العدل حتى ولو كان الشئ المرهون ديْناً؛ فيحق للةدائن المرتهن حيازة سند الدّيْن المرهون بشرط
أن يكون الدّيْن قابلاً للةحوال ، أو الحجز، أو الرهن الاستحقاقي ) 58.)
وكذلك يشترط في الحيازة أن تكون ظاهرة وواضح لا لَبس فيها ولا غموض حتى يكون غيره علةى علةم تام بأن هذا
الشيء في حيازة المرتهن علةى أساس أنه مرهون، ويشترط فيها أيضاً أن تكون مستمرة طالما استمر قيام عقد الرهن
الحيازي، ولا يكون نافذاً في حق غيره من غير هذه الحيازة ، حيث لو خرجت من يد المرتهن إلى يد غيره من غير إرادته

يخول له القانون في استردادها من غيره، والتقدم علةى الدائنين العادين، وكذلك الدائنين التاليين له في المرتب ) 59.)
والحيازة في عقد الرهن الحيازي لا تكاد تختلةف في كيفيتها عن عقد الرهن الرسمي، فالرهن الحيازي يتطلةب تسجيلةه في
السجل العقاري إذا كان محل الرهن عقاراً حتى تنتقل الحيازة إلى الدائن، أو العدل – وهذا الأمر لا يختلةف عن عقد
الرهن الرسمي في امكاني تسجيلةه أيضاً في السجل العقاري – وأما إذا كان محل الرهن منقولاً في الرهن الحيازي، فيجب
اثباته في ورق رسمي يبين فيها قيم المبلةغ المضمون بالرهن، والمال المرهون، ويشترط في الورق أن يكون لها تاريخ ثابت؛
لأن من شأن هذا التاريخ أن يحدد مرتب الدائن المرتهن ) 60.

مقومات استثمار المال المرهون في القانون المدني الليبي:
إن القانون اللةيبي قد وضع علةى عاتق الراهن في الرهن الرسمي الحق في التصرف يأي شكل من أشكاله سواء بالبيع، أو
الاستثمار، ولكن هذا التصرف ليس علةى اطلاقه في الرهن الحيازي بإعتبار المال المرهون ينتقل إلى المرتهن، وهذا الشرط
لا يوجد في الرهن الرسمي، وبيان ذلك علةى النحو التالي:
أولاً: مقومات الاستثمار في عقد الرهن الرسمي:
يحق للةمدين الراهن في عقد الرهن الرسمي في القانون اللةيبي أن يحتفظ بحق تصرفه في المال المرهون كما كان قبل عقد الرهن
بدليل نص المادة: ) 1047 ( علةى هذا الحق بقولها: ” يجوز للةراهن أن يتصرف في العقار الم رهُون ، وأي تصرف يصدر
منه لا يؤثر في حق الدائن والمرتهن “، فإن الراهن تظل له كل سلةطات المالك من تصرف، واستعمال، واستثمار بشرط
ألاَ يضر بحق الدائن المرتهن ولا يؤثر فيه، وهذا التصرف ما هو إلاّ يوضع ملةكه للةمال المرهون ) 88.)
وبالتالي، فيجب علةى الدائن المرتهن في حال الرهن الرسمي تقييد حق رهنه للةمال المرهون من قيام الراهن بحق تصرفه في
المال المرهون رهناً رسمياً عن طريق بيعه أجزاء متفرق إلى عدد من المشترين، فيصبح للةدائن المرتهن الحقَّ في تتبع كل جزء
من المال المرهون أي العقار في يد من اشتراه، ويؤكد القانون اللةيبي أن المرتهن له الحق في تتبع العقار حتى إذا انتقل إلى
أي شخص آخر بأي طريق معينه ) 89.)
ثانياً: مقومات الاستثمار في عقد الرهن الحيازي:
إن استثمار المال المرهون يعتبر التزاماً يقع علةى عاتق المرتهن في القانون اللةيبي بشرط إذا لم يكن هناك اتفاق بعدم استثمار
المال المرهون بين الراهن والمرتهن، وهذا الالتزام لا يكون إلاّ في حال انتقال المال المرهون إلى حيازة المرتهن، وهذا الحق لا
يكون للةراهن في حال الرهن الحيازي ) 90.)
ويترتب علةى هذا الالتزام أن يكون بمقابل، فلةيس للةمرتهن أن ينتفع بالمال المرهون في الرهن الحيازي من غير مقابل ،
وحينئذٍ يحق للةمرتهن أن يستغل المرهون لحساب نفسه كأن يسكن المنزل المرهون، أو يركب السيارة المرهون ، وله أيضاً أن
يستغلةها بواسط غيره فيؤجرها لشخص آخر ) 91.)
وما يتحصل علةيه المرتهن من صافي الربح، وما يتحصل علةيه أيضاً من استثماره للةمال المرهون لا يرده للةراهن؛ بل يجب
علةيه أن يخصم من صافي الأرباح أولاً قيم ما أنفقه في المحافظ علةى الشيء المرهون، وفي إصلاحه عند تعرضه للةضرر،
ثُم يخصم ثانياً كل المصروفات التي صرفها علةى إدارة المال المرهون، ثم يخصم ثالثاً الفوائد المتحصل علةيها من أصل الرهن،
ثم يخصم رابعاً ما بقي من صافي الربح بعد كل ذلك من أصل الديْن المضمون بالرهن، وهذا الخصم المتقدم يعتبر من
حق المرتهن، وليس للةراهن الحق في التدخل فيه، فلةلةمرتهن اتباع ما هو مناسب اتجاه هذا الخصم ) 92.)

Dr. Mohamed Karbal is licensed to practice law in Libya, New York and Washington D.C. He served as an expert witness on Libyan law. Karbal & Co is a full-service international law firm that serves the needs of businesses and governments in Libya and Washington D.C.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication at the time it was written. It is not intended to provide legal advice or suggest a guaranteed outcome as individual situations will differ and the law may have changed since publication.

Readers considering legal action should consult with an experienced lawyer to understand current laws and how they may affect a case. For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

In application of this text, it is required in the possession mortgage contract that the following conditions be fulfilled (28):

The first condition: The mortgaged money must be from real estate and movables that can be sold by public auction.

The second condition: that these real estates and movables should be of what is valid to deal with.

The third condition: that it be precisely specific, and that it is subject to possession, and there is no difference between being movable things.

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